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Charting Singapore's AI Journey: The National Artificial Intelligence Strategy 1.0


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In this Explainer, find out...

  • What are the risks and opportunities presented by the proliferation of AI?

  • How does the National AI Strategy 1.0 seek to manage risks and leverage opportunities?

  • How will the National AI Strategy 1.0 impact different sectors in Singapore?


Introduction

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has experienced a surge in power, particularly concerning its generative capabilities. It seemingly can automate tasks traditionally performed by humans, serving as an effective replacement for everything a human can do. This transformative influence has permeated the collective consciousness of Singaporeans. The Government has also taken an interest in AI, given the opportunities and risks the technology presents to Singapore and Singaporeans alike.


To address the proliferation of AI technologies, the Government introduced the NAIS 1.0 in 2019.¹ This initiative seeks not only to manage AI’s risks but also to develop AI’s potential as a driver for national progress across all sectors. Read on to explore the “why” and “how” of this unique AI governance strategy.


A Brief History of Singapore's Tech-based Initiatives

Before AI, Singapore concerned itself with the rapid uptake of other technologies through the Smart Nation Initiative. Launched as a body under the Ministry of Communications and Information (MCI) in 2014, the initiative aimed to align Singapore with the emerging digital economy to explore growth potential through technology.² In its inauguration, Prime Minister (PM) Lee Hsien Loong recognised the importance of the systemic integration of technology into Singapore’s institutions and processes, which according to his speech, “will make our economy more productive, our lives better, and our society more responsive to our people’s needs and aspirations.”³

The Smart Nation Initiative stands out for its all-encompassing nature. In the early era of computerisation in the 1980s, Singapore boldly took steps as one of the first few nations to plan for the digitalisation of its public service. With the introduction of the Civil Service Computerisation Programme, simple digital processes were implemented to enhance efficiency by automating work functions and reducing paperwork.⁴ Subsequently, the e-Government Action Plan (eGAP) 1 and 2 were established to improve the delivery of governmental services through technology, such as the eCitizen portal (now defunct) that gave Singaporeans non-stop access to various governmental services and information.⁵


However, these initiatives focused heavily on accelerating various governmental processes rather than incorporating technology into the everyday lives of Singaporeans, which the Smart Nation Initiative emphasised.⁶ Figure 1 outlines Singapore’s journey through digital transformation.


Figure 1: Timeline of e-government initiatives⁷

The AI Boom

With all that in mind, then, why the need for a separate AI strategy? To understand the conception of NAIS 1.0, it is necessary to understand the proliferation of AI technology in recent years, as well as the risks and opportunities that it begets.


While AI has been around for decades (think search engines, robots that play chess), it only experienced a surge in popularity in recent years. As AI usage becomes more commonplace, we will see more companies competing in this space. This could explain the unprecedented ubiquity of AI uptake and literacy.⁸

This could suggest why many governments have laid out plans for AI governance and steward AI development. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has recorded over 1000 AI strategies and initiatives from 69 countries.⁹ The Smart Nation Initiative, for all its merits, cannot handle the hydra that is AI. That is where NAIS 1.0 comes in.


Opportunities of AI

NAIS 1.0 positions Singapore to tap into the full potential of AI in improving society. At the Singapore Fintech Festival (SFF) 2023, AI received much attention, being highlighted as a transformative tool in many sectors. Speaking at the festival, Mr Thomas Dohmke, an executive from GitHub, recognised that AI is projected to boost the global economy by S$12.8 trillion by 2030, and further emphasised the importance of keeping a progressive attitude towards AI development to not “fall behind” other countries.¹⁰


AI is recognised for its powerful ability to enhance governmental productivity. For instance, the Ask Jamie virtual assistant, available across over 70 governmental websites, has boosted the efficiency of clarifying government-related queries. Questions posed by citizens on Ask Jamie are understood by the AI through its Natural Language Processing (NLP) engine, providing the most appropriate and helpful answers in response. This reduces the need for governmental call centres, offering a self-help avenue that requires little to no maintenance.¹¹ In the future, plans to incorporate more powerful AI features into this initiative are already in the works. The Virtual Intelligent Chat Assistant (VICA) is a direct replacement for Ask Jamie, being more accurate and requiring even less maintenance.¹²


Another benefit of AI in serving Singaporean society comes from its crime detection capabilities. In a speech at the Asia Tech x Artificial Intelligence conference in June 2023, Minister for Communications and Information, Josephine Teo, explained how AI has helped safeguard Singapore. Firstly, with Singapore’s need for fast and safe cargo clearance, AI has increased the accuracy of anomaly detection in shipments. Secondly, AI-enabled image and text comparisons have also recently begun to be used to detect scams. For instance, detection tools have scanned 120,000 websites, facilitating the elimination of phishing scams and fraudulent products.¹³


Risks of AI

The advantages of AI are intertwined with its risks. According to a discussion paper jointly published by the Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA) and technology company Aicadium, major risks of AI that Singapore could face in the coming years include the spread of false information, privacy concerns, toxicity and cyberbullying, copyright infringement, AI bias, and difficulty of instruction.¹⁴


Recognising this, the Government has implemented notable initiatives to combat these risks, such as the Singapore AI verify toolkit. The toolkit is a testing framework for newly developed AIs to verify that they have met certain ethical standards, both nationally and internationally.¹⁵ However, as experts note, such initiatives are largely voluntary, lacking incentive or disincentive to increase their uptake and usage.¹⁶ As such, more work still needs to be done to ensure that the AI race does not undermine the interests of Singaporeans.


Singapore's National AI Strategy 1.0

Given the opportunities and risks posed by AI, how then does NAIS 1.0 envision bringing Singapore to its next stage of digital evolution?


The Vision

NAIS 1.0 envisions Singapore becoming an international leader in AI solutions by 2030. It is also important to note that, while separate strategies, the Smart Nation Initiative and National AI Strategy synergise in terms of aiming to “generate economic gains and improve lives” through technology.¹⁷


The Approach: 5 Key Pillars

NAIS 1.0 outlines five pillars that are key in ensuring Singapore’s success in this space.¹⁸


1. Triple Helix Partnership

The “Triple Helix” in question refers to three stakeholders key in accelerating the pace of AI research and deployment, namely the academic and research community, the government, and the private sector.


1.1 Deepening Investments into AI R&D

A key strategy to incentivise AI development in the private sector is monetary investments. As a percentage of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the Government funnels 18 times more money than the United States into AI-related Research and Development (R&D) processes.¹⁹ Over the past 5 years, Singapore has invested a considerable amount of S$500 million into an ecosystem of AI start-ups and technologies.²⁰


1.2 Driving Partnerships between the Research Community and Industry

The Government will focus on building a mutually beneficial information pipeline between industry and the research community. This will allow research bodies to tap into the private sector’s knowledge of market and societal needs. Concurrently, the private sector may access academic research to improve their R&D processes. A notable example of partnerships already in place is between Singtel and the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), amongst 15 similar collaborations.²¹

1.3 Accelerate AI Adoption in Companies

To realise the potential of AI in the workplace, the Government hopes to support companies in their uptake of AI solutions. Resources will thus be provided to raise the accessibility of AI. One example is the 100 Experiments (100E) programme launched by AI Singapore. The programme provides a platform for companies to seek help from AI experts (from A*STAR, universities, etc.) in addressing business problems that could be resolved through AI.²² Thus far, the programme has undertaken 38 projects, and 10 of them have already seen solutions deployed into companies.²³


1.4 Establish AI Innovation Testbeds

AI innovation can be encouraged by offering testbeds to companies. The upcoming Punggol Digital District (PDD) is one such testbed. It is envisioned to provide a space for academia from the Singapore Technological University and industry players to exist together, allowing for unparalleled synergies and collaboration opportunities.²⁴ It will also feature an Open Digital Platform (OPD) which collects anonymous data about the district and its denizens. This data can then be used by companies in the PDD to analyse outcomes, providing an easy, open-access platform for testing and experimentation.²⁵


2. AI Talent and Education

Humans remain a key driver of AI development. Thus, the strategy recognises the need to cultivate and attract AI talent to Singapore.


2.1 Cultivating Local Talent

In 2024, Singapore is expected to have 60,000 local technology talents, with around 2,800 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) graduates annually. While numbers appear hopeful, Minister Vivian Balakrishnan has expressed concerns the demand for tech talent may still outstrip supply.²⁶ Thus, the Government will continue to increase the number of scholarships and apprenticeships to encourage students to pursue careers in AI. A notable initiative, led by AI Singapore, is the AI Apprenticeship Programme (AIAP). It aims to identify, train and groom AI talents in Singapore. Apprentices under this programme work in collaboration with the 100E initiative mentioned earlier to apply their knowledge in real-world settings.²⁷


2.2 Basic Computing Skills and Thinking Education for Everyone

To nurture AI talents, the Government also plans to provide basic computational skills education for all age groups, most notably for students. In schools, classes, co-curricular activities, and programmes have already been implemented to introduce students to computing and computational thinking.²⁸ 100,000 Singaporean adults and students are expected to benefit from computing-based education by 2025.²⁹


2.3 Attracting Foreign Talent

The Government also hopes to attract more foreign tech talent to work in Singapore. Thus, programmes like the Tech@SG Programme have been introduced, allowing eligible technology companies to expedite employment pass applications by having the Economic Development Board (EDB) endorse such applications directly.³⁰

3. Data Architecture

The underlying fuel of AI is data. AI needs data to carry out a process known as deep learning i.e., an artificial simulation of how humans learn. However, in requiring large amounts of data for operation, AI runs the risk of compromising the privacy of individuals. This is especially so if data were to be misused by malicious actors. Thus, Singapore requires a robust data-sharing network to ensure the needs of both parties are met.


3.1 Establishing Frameworks for Public-Private Data Sharing

This thrust focuses heavily on establishing regulatory frameworks to ensure equitable and safe data exchanges between the private and the public. The goal is to “help anchor public-private data collaboration and innovation” instead of using data for illegitimate or exploitative purposes.³¹


The Government also aims to enhance data utilisation within the public sector. This goal is encapsulated in the Core Operations Development Environment and eXchange (CODEX) plan,³² which seeks to build a strong public data architecture for the public sector by creating common standards and formats for government agencies to share data, as well as tapping on commercial cloud-based data storing services to improve data management efficiency for less sensitive data.


3.2 Establishing Trusted Data Intermediaries

Under the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA), a data intermediary is an entity that processes personal data “on behalf of another organisation”.³³ Owing to their nature, they typically have access to large amounts of private data, and thus need to be upheld to a high standard of transparency and accountability. NAIS 1.0 therefore seeks to define “common data standards” for data intermediaries and private companies to ensure the continued protection of confidentiality for Singaporeans.³⁴


4. Progressive and Trusted Environment


4.1 Establishing Citizens’ Trust Toward AI

Singapore is well aware of AI’s bad reputation for certain individuals. Citizens’ trust in AI must thus be increased to allow for the holistic adoption of AI in Singapore. NAIS 1.0 thus advocates for a “human-centric” approach to AI, encouraging the development of AI for the use and benefit of humans.³⁵ In a similar vein, the Government has set up the “Singapore’s Advisory Council on the Ethical Use of AI and Data”, comprising consumers, advisory boards of AI companies, and researchers to build “a trusted ecosystem” for AI use.³⁶ It is hoped that by promoting citizens’ best interests and instilling confidence in AI, the fears of alarm-pullers will be assuaged.


4.2 Supporting Innovation in AI through Intellectual Property (IP) Regimes and Patent Accelerations

To reduce legislative and regulatory impediments to AI development, the AI strategy provides solutions through IP regimes and patent accelerations. First, IP regimes can incentivise AI development by reducing taxes on revenue generated from each IP.³⁷ The Government is thus reviewing legislation to create IP regimes for AI technologies. The Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS) has also implemented the Accelerated Initiative for Artificial Intelligence (AI2), which reduces the patent-granting period for AI technologies to just 6 months.³⁸ These initiatives have sped up the development of AI in Singapore; Singapore ranks 12th globally for the number of AI patent applications and 14th for AI patents granted.³⁹


5. International Collaboration

Singapore does not work in a vacuum. The Government recognises Singapore’s dependence on international actors and thus aims to collaborate with them to drive the “global effort” to cultivate AI.⁴⁰


5.1 Contributing to Global AI Guidelines and Standards

Singapore has been a leader in forums about AI governance and ethics within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Following the drafting of the ASEAN Cybersecurity Cooperation Strategy 2017-2020, Singapore has offered to lead its implementation.⁴¹ Such cases serve as the template for AI leadership in the region and promote Singapore’s position as a leader in AI standards.


5.2 Collaborating on Multinational AI Projects

Singapore has signed multiple AI Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) with countries worldwide, demonstrating a willingness to collaborate. A notable example is that of Singapore and France, which have launched a joint laboratory to research the use of AI in cyber defence. The French Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and Temasek Labs are overseeing this project.⁴²


AI Adoption in Public Services

As part of Singapore’s strategy to increase AI deployment, the Government has also identified five National AI Projects in sectors of high social and/or economic impact to guide the development of AI technologies.⁴³ These projects have been established in the areas of 1) Transport and Logistics, 2) Smart Cities and Estates, 3) Healthcare, 4) Education, and 5) Safety and security.⁴⁴

In this Policy Explainer, we will dive specifically into two of its key areas – smart cities and estates, and healthcare.


Smart Cities and Estates: Seamless and Efficient Municipal Services

To deliver municipal services in a more responsive, reliable, and timely manner,⁴⁵ the Government launched the OneService Chatbot in 2021.⁴⁶ Unlike its predecessor, the OneService Chatbot allows residents to report issues without needing to worry about which agency to report their feedback to, or how to describe the issue.⁴⁷ To report an issue, residents can simply text the chatbot on WhatsApp or Telegram, and AI will be used to categorise the topic, prompt for case details in real-time, and send the feedback case to the relevant agencies.⁴⁸ ⁴⁹ With the OneService Chatbot, residents can report municipal issues conveniently. Case resolution time is also shortened as feedback cases are sent to the right agencies with the necessary information, thereby minimising back-and-forths between agencies and residents.⁵⁰

It is worth noting that, as expounded in the ‘Smart Cities and Estates’ National AI Project, the Government seeks to undertake more pre-emptive inspections instead of relying solely on feedback. To better maintain estates, sensors and AI algorithms will be deployed in neighbourhoods, such as in lifts, to pre-empt faults before they happen, minimising inconvenience to residents.⁵¹


Altogether, as part of Singapore’s aim to deliver a high standard of municipal services to its residents, residents can not only report municipal issues more efficiently but also experience improved maintenance of estates and more reliable municipal infrastructure.⁵²

Healthcare: Chronic Disease Prediction and Management

With chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol being key concerns among Singaporeans, the Government aims to better prevent and manage chronic illnesses.⁵³


One of the earliest deployments of AI in healthcare services was the Singapore Eye LEsioN Analyser, also known as SELENA+.⁵⁴ Exhibiting an impressive accuracy rate of 95-97% in identifying diabetic damage to the eye,⁵⁵ SELENA+ can accurately analyse digital retinal photographs faster than human graders, increasing the latter’s productivity by up to 70%.⁵⁶ With the potential to extend SELENA+’s retinal image reading capabilities to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease,⁵⁷ it facilitates early intervention for patients before their conditions become fatal if left unattended.


Furthermore, to help support primary care doctors in the healthcare industry, the development of Secure GPT represents a significant stride in automating healthcare tasks.⁵⁸ A product of the collaborative efforts between Integrated Health Information Systems (IHiS) and Microsoft, Secure GPT streamlines processes by generating condensed patient information, tracking medication changes, and even offering precise responses to enquiries on care protocols.⁵⁹ The use of AI will help catalyse the modernisation of public healthcare IT, saving valuable time for doctors who can now turn to patients with more critical conditions.⁶⁰


Lastly, to incentivise Singaporeans to self-manage chronic diseases and take appropriate preventive measures, plans are being made to leverage AI to analyse individuals’ clinical data and health behaviours to create personalised risk scores.⁶¹

All in all, many measures are being taken to improve health outcomes among Singaporeans. Not only will Singaporeans be empowered to better self-manage their health conditions, but healthcare providers will also become more productive, facilitating the early detection of patients at higher risk of complications to reduce the likelihood of medical complications.⁶²


What's Next?

On 4 December 2023, Deputy Prime Minister Lawrence Wong unveiled Singapore’s National AI Strategy 2.0 (NAIS 2.0), a revised blueprint that seeks to update Singapore’s strategies in managing AI-associated risks, scale the development of AI infrastructure, and accelerate AI adoption to augment the growth of Singapore’s economy.⁶³


Special focus will be placed on the last, with changes including an upcoming redesign of the AIAP, the development of targeted AI training programmes under the Industry Transformation Maps and Jobs Transformation Maps, and the establishment of an AI site for AI creators and users to agglomerate.⁶⁴ With these changes in place, Singapore is poised to be a leader in this fast-evolving field.


Conclusion

With NAIS 1.0, Singapore is undoubtedly showcasing a steadfast commitment to innovation and technological advancements aimed at improving the daily lives of its citizens through the adoption of AI. These forward-looking initiatives bring numerous benefits, as more AI-enabled technologies are implemented to enhance efficiency and liveability in Singapore. With continuous governmental efforts in seeking opportunities to innovate responsibly for the benefit of Singaporeans, there is much excitement in envisioning the future that Singapore holds.


MAJU PE_2023_28_Charting Singapore's AI Journey
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This Policy Explainer was written by members of MAJU. MAJU is an independent, youth-led organisation that focuses on engaging Singaporean youths in a long-term research process to guide them in jointly formulating policy ideas of their own.


By sharing our unique youth perspectives, MAJU hopes to contribute to the policymaking discourse and future of Singapore.

 
¹ Chng, Zhenzhi. 2023. “Forum: Singapore has made moves to harness full potential of AI and ensure responsible use.” The Straits Times, January 16, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/forum/forum-singapore-has-made-moves-to-harness-full-potential-of-ai-and-ensure-responsible-use.
² Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “Pillars of a Smart Nation - Digital Society.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/about-smart-nation/pillars-of-smart-nation/.
³ Prime Minister’s Office Singapore. 2014. “PMO | PM Lee Hsien Loong at the Smart Nation Launch.” Prime Minister's Office Singapore. https://www.pmo.gov.sg/Newsroom/transcript-prime-minister-lee-hsien-loongs-speech-smart-nation-launch-24-november.
⁴ GovTech Singapore. 2016. “eGov Masterplans.” Government Technology Agency. https://www.tech.gov.sg/media/corporate-publications/egov-masterplans.
⁵ Ministry of Finance and Infocomm Development Authority. n.d. “e-Gov Brochure.” Government Technology Agency. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.tech.gov.sg/files/media/corporate-publications/2016/01/eGap_II.pdf.
⁶ Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. n.d. “Singapore's Smart Nation Initiative – A Policy and Organisational Perspective.” Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/docs/default-source/case-studies/singapores-smart-nation-initiative-final_112018.pdf?sfvrsn=354e720a_2.
⁷ Ibid.
⁸ McKinsey & Company. 2023. “The state of AI in 2023: Generative AI's breakout year.” McKinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/capabilities/quantumblack/our-insights/the-state-of-ai-in-2023-generative-ais-breakout-year.
⁹ OECD. n.d. “OECD's live repository of AI strategies & policies.” OECD AI Policy Observatory. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://oecd.ai/en/dashboards/overview.
¹⁰ Goh, Timothy. 2023. “AI can boost productivity, but regulation is key: Experts.” The Straits Times, November 17, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/business/ai-can-boost-productivity-but-regulation-is-key-experts.
¹¹ GovTech Singapore. n.d. “'Ask Jamie' Virtual Assistant.” Government Technology Agency. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.tech.gov.sg/products-and-services/ask-jamie/.
¹² GovTech Singapore. n.d. “VICA – Virtual Intelligent Chat Assistant.” Government Technology Agency. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.tech.gov.sg/products-and-services/vica/.
¹³ Teo, Josephine. 2023. “How Singapore intends to harness AI for the public good.” The Straits Times, June 8, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/how-singapore-intends-to-harness-ai-for-the-public-good.
¹⁴ Ong, Jasmine. 2023. “Mistakes, false stories: Singapore flags 6 key risks of AI in paper, launches foundation to boost governance.” Today Online, June 7, 2023. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/ai-risk-imda-discussion-paper-2187966.
¹⁵ AI Verify Foundation. n.d. “What is AI Verify – AI Verify Foundation.” AI Verify Foundation. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://aiverifyfoundation.sg/what-is-ai-verify/.
¹⁶ Soon, Carol, and Beverly Tan. 2023. “AI comes with risks, and more can be done to minimise them.” The Straits Times, August 25, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/ai-comes-with-risks-and-more-can-be-done-to-minimise-them.
¹⁷ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
¹⁸ Ibid.
¹⁹ Gelles, Rebecca. 2023. “CSET - Examining Singapore's AI Progress.” Center for Security and Emerging Technology. https://cset.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/CSET-Examining-Singapores-AI-Progress.pdf.
²⁰ Wu, Xinyi. 2023. “About S$500 million invested in AI innovation in last 5 years: Josephine Teo.” The Business Times, June 14, 2023. https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/startups-tech/about-s500-million-invested-ai-innovation-last-5-years-josephine-teo.
²¹ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
²² AI Singapore. n.d. “100 Experiments.” AI Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://aisingapore.org/innovation/100e/.
²³ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
²⁴ JTC. “Punggol Digital District: The future is yours to create” YouTube video, 2:13, April 12, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i4osPznQ5d0&t=94s&ab_channel=JTCCorp.
²⁵ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “Punggol Smart Town.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/initiatives/strategic-national-projects/punggolst/.
²⁶ Tham, Irene. 2020. “Huge shortage of infocomm professionals in Singapore: Vivian Balakrishnan.” The New Paper, June 22, 2020. https://tnp.straitstimes.com/news/singapore/huge-shortage-infocomm-professionals-singapore-minister.
²⁷ AI Singapore. n.d. “AI Apprenticeship Programme (AIAP)®.” AI Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://aisingapore.org/innovation/aiap/.
²⁸ IMDA. 2017. “Computational thinking for every student - Infocomm Media Development Authority.” IMDA. https://www.imda.gov.sg/resources/blog/blog-articles/archived/2017/11/computational-thinking-for-every-student.
²⁹ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
³⁰ EDB Singapore. 2023. “Tech@SG.” Singapore Economic Development Board. https://www.edb.gov.sg/en/how-we-help/incentives-and-schemes/tech-sg.html.
³¹ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
³² Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “CODEX.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/initiatives/strategic-national-projects/codex/.
³³ Wong, Wai San. 2023. “PDPC | The Distinction between organisations and Data Intermediaries and Why It Matters.” Personal Data Protection Commission. https://www.pdpc.gov.sg/the-d
³⁴ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
³⁵ Ibid.
³⁶ Yu, Eileen. 2018. “Singapore council to assess ethical use of AI, data.” ZDNET. https://www.zdnet.com/article/singapore-council-to-assess-ethical-use-of-ai-data/.
³⁷ OECD. n.d. “About the Dataset Intellectual Property Regimes.” OECD. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://qdd.oecd.org/subject.aspx?Subject=IP_regimes.
³⁸ Intellectual Property Office of Singapore. 2019. “Intellectual Property Office of Singapore Registry of Patents Circular No. 2/2019: Launch of AI2: Accelerated Initiative for A.” Intellectual Property Office of Singapore. https://www.ipos.gov.sg/docs/default-source/resources-library/patents/circulars/(2019)-circular-no-2---ai2-initiative_final.pdf.
³⁹ Gelles, Rebecca. 2023. “CSET - Examining Singapore's AI Progress.” Center for Security and Emerging Technology. https://cset.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/CSET-Examining-Singapores-AI-Progress.pdf.
⁴⁰ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁴¹ Spencer, Leon. 2021. “How ASEAN is driving global cyber security efforts.” Channel Asia, October 7, 2021. https://www.channelasia.tech/article/691880/how-asean-driving-global-cybersecurity-efforts/.
⁴² InCyber News. 2023. “France and Singapore launch AI lab for cyber defense.” InCyber News. https://incyber.org/en/france-and-singapore-launch-ai-lab-for-cyber-defense.
⁴³ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁴⁴ Ibid.
⁴⁵ Ibid.
⁴⁶ Liew, Isabelle. 2021. “New AI chatbot will direct residents’ feedback on municipal issues to agencies.” The Straits Times. July 15, 2021. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/consumer/new-ai-chatbot-will-direct-residents-feedback-on-municipal-issues-to-agencies.
⁴⁷ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “ADVANCING OUR SMART NATION JOURNEY.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 26, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁴⁸ Ibid.
⁴⁹ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁵⁰ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁵¹ Ibid.
⁵² Ibid.
⁵³ Ibid.
⁵⁴ Lim, Joyce. 2023. “AI already playing bigger roles behind the scenes in healthcare: Kenneth Mak.” The Straits Times, August 6, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/ai-already-playing-bigger-roles-behind-the-scenes-in-healthcare-kenneth-mak.
⁵⁵ Ibid.
⁵⁶ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁵⁷ Ibid.
⁵⁸ Abdullah, Zhaki. 2023. “MOH agency IHiS, Microsoft to develop AI tool to help healthcare workers in Singapore.” The Straits Time, July 8, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/health/moh-agency-microsoft-to-develop-ai-tool-for-healthcare-workers-in-s-pore?login=true&close=true.
⁵⁹ Ibid.
⁶⁰ Ibid.
⁶¹ Smart Nation Singapore. n.d. “National Artificial Intelligence Strategy.” Smart Nation Singapore. Accessed November 27, 2023. https://www.smartnation.gov.sg/files/publications/national-ai-strategy.pdf.
⁶² Ibid.
⁶³ Chia, Osmond. 2023. “National AI Strategy 2.0 follows years of planning, growth in AI sector 'not by chance': DPM Wong.” The Straits Times, December 4, 2023. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/national-ai-strategy-20-follows-years-of-planning-growth-in-ai-sector-not-by-chance-dpm-wong.
⁶⁴ Tham, Davina. 2023. “Singapore to triple AI talent pool, build 'iconic' AI site as part of updated national strategy.” CNA, December 4, 2023. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/singapore/national-ai-strategy-artificial-intelligence-talent-iconic-site-3963971.

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